As regards to intrinsic motivation, the results show that employees place great importance on their personal satisfaction, suggesting that they prefer to carry out their jobs in such a way that will make them feel personally satisfied with their efforts. This indirect effect is observed through the negative effect on employees’ intrinsic motivation (e.g. 68 No. taking the initiative or preventing problems during their job execution) and adaptability (e.g. Chatman, J.A., Caldwell, D.F., O’Reilly, C.A. Anastasios D. Diamantidis is Adjunct Lecturer of Organizational Behavior at the Department of Production and Management Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece. The business heads should cascade the assessment and the teams can accordingly work towards newer goals or fine-tune the existing ones. To honour this dedication, many organizations chose unusual ways. 573-603. Managers cite employee performance appraisal as the task they dislike the most, second only to firing an employee. In order for this to be accomplished, having the intention to pursue it, simply communicating this in executive boards and employee round tables is just not enough, since the results of this research point out that managers should take the first initiative by supporting and accommodating employees job performance. The above finding may justify the existence of its indirect relations with proactivity (0.23***), adaptability (0.31***), intrinsic motivation (0.23***) and EP (0.24***). As such, it aims to present a balanced and complete After the proposed modifications were incorporated in the questionnaires, they were distributed to a small number of employees and HR managers. Regarding performance, the employee performance at workplace scale by Pradhan and Jena (2016) was referred and two questions were asked: "There was progress in … 1173-1206. The questionnaire for employees was divided into two sections, with the first section referring to the correspondent’s general characteristics and job position and the second section including questions that measure the factors affecting EP (except for the factor “environmental dynamism”) (Table I). 42 No. In these times, reassuring employees is of paramount importance and organizations have taken great strides in boosting employee morale. (2006) found that job autonomy is also positively related to commitment and proactivity. A second positive direct relation (0.19***/H6b) between training culture and proactivity is also proposed. 32 No. Moreover, the wording of the questions was slightly remodified before the final draft was developed, based on the remarks and instructions of the pretest process participants. 317-375. Kooij, D.T., Guest, D.E., Clinton, M., Knight, T., Jansen, P.G. 1, pp. The revenue that each employee brings in on a monthly basis reflects on that individual’s overall performance. 54-63. Employee Performance Find here the best articles for Employee Performance written by our top corporate eLearning authors! His research interests include HRM, information systems management, employee evaluation. 680-699. 3-26. A potential limitation of this research is that it is not focused only on one business sector (i.e. 1, pp. At the same time, job environment, management support and organizational climate have a considerable impact not only on EP but on the other factors of the model as well. His research interests include information systems management, knowledge management, e-business, human resource management and strategic management. (2008), “The dynamics of proactivity at work”, Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 2, pp. United States Office of Personnel Management, 2001, A handbook for measuring employee performance: aligning employee performance plans with organizational goals, Performance Management Practitioner Series, p. 5 Roos, W. and Van Eeden, R. (2008), “The relationship between employee motivation, job satisfaction and corporate culture”, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Vol. Kozlowski et al. Ensuring business continuity through remote working, COVID-19 has urged many organizations to redesign their business models in a way to support remote working. This is possible through cutting-edge performance management tools meant for agile goal-setting and continuous feedback . 403-419. 4, pp. (2002) and Thoresen et al. Further, Motowildo and Schmit (1999, p. 56) indicate that when firms’ external environments are dynamic, then it is difficult for them to predetermine their employees’ efficiency levels. Likewise, this sample of people was also asked to comment on various issues concerning the two questionnaires, such as the clarity of instructions, etc. In conclusion, the proposed model shows the relationships between 10 (out of 13 initially examined), based on the existing international literature, important factors and EP. 764-765) define employees’ skill flexibility as “the number of possible alternative ways, through which employees can apply their skills in their job” and “how employees with different skills can be repositioned to the proper places in a fast way.” Bhattacharya et al. Performance can be traced back to the behaviour of people on the shop floor. Accurate alignment Key Performance Indicators. The back-translation method, which refers to the fact that the questionnaire is translated back to the original language to ensure correspondence with the original version, was also used to validate the translated questionnaire. The performance management feature in Zoho People lets employees add goals and tag skill sets and KRAs to track their progress. and Doerr, B. (2006), “Organization communication, job stress, organizational commitment, and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and America”, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. LePine, J.A. (2000), “Benchmarking employee skills: results from best practice firms in Greece”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. Morrison (2006) also reports that when employees feel “free” in their workplaces, proactive behaviors are observed, such as the expression of innovative ideas and taking the initiative to solve job-related problems. During this process, researchers had face-to-face discussions with several employees, HR managers and academics in order to ensure that the questionnaires had no serious format or content problems. Diamantidis, A.D. and Chatzoglou, P. (2019), "Factors affecting employee performance: an empirical approach", International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, Vol. 305-558. Table II presents a brief profile of the research participants (managers and employees). (2010), “Taking stock: integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors”, Journal of Management, Vol. 18 No. 5, pp. (2008), Human Resource Management, Thomson/South Western, Mason, OH. Research structural model (first-level analysis), Research structural model (second-level analysis), Notes: Sample, n=392. 4, pp. As a fact, we expect an excellent performance to generate more sales. 36, pp. Ideally, a workplace that has diversities benefits from creativity and innovations that result from the variety of 326-336. 90 No. 367-387. Further, Parker et al. (2000), “Proactive behaviour in organizations”, Journal of Management, Vol. Employees state that they often take the initiative and express to their peers their views on job-related matters. Thus, when employees perform in a working environment where they are considered to be a firm’s precious asset and feel that their contribution is crucial for achieving business excellence and improving firm performance, then they are motivated to perform their job activities in the best possible way. Considering each factor’s total effect on EP, it can be observed that job environment (0.506***), management support (0.402***), adaptability (0.259***), organizational climate (0.244***) and intrinsic motivation (0.134***/H21) are the main factors that affect EP. (1991), “Communication in a ‘network’ organization”, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. Finally, it must be stressed that skill evaluation, communication and commitment are not related to EP. Managers should put an effort on establishing a healthy organizational climate characterized by high quality relationships between managers, employees and co-workers (i.e. 42 No. The term “employee performance” signifies individual’s work achievement after exerting required effort on the job which is associated through getting a meaningful work, engaged profile, and compassionate colleagues/employers; and Bliese, P.D. The results indicate that job environment and management support have the strongest impacts (direct and indirect) on job performance, while adaptability and intrinsic motivation directly affect job performance. (1999), “Taking charge at work: extra-role efforts to initiate workplace change”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. (2000) argue that the main challenge for firms is to evaluate EP and to consider how it can become more efficient and more “valid.” In other words, in which way firms can apply performance evaluation practices in order to improve their ability to distinguish “good” employees (that display desirable performance) from the bad ones. The above lead logically to the formulation of the following hypotheses: (a, b, c, d, e, f): Job-related factors are related to employee-related factors. Kozlowski, S.W.J., Toney, R.J., Mullins, M.E., Weissbein, D.A., Brown, K.G. Companies today, with increased competition in the business arena, are keen to boost employee performance in order to enhance their profitability, market reach and brand recognition. Thus, managers and supervisors have a crucial role regarding safeguarding and improving the behavioral aspects of employee belonging and affirmation in a job environment. Grant, A.M. and Parker, S.K. 4, pp. Further, Parker et al. Some factors have a very weak impact (e.g. An investigation in state and other sectors in Vietnam, Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage, Strategic human resource management and its effects on firm performance: an implementation of the competing values framework, Benchmarking employee skills: results from best practice firms in Greece, Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: a meta-analytic review, Taking stock: integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors, Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work, Individual ADAPTability (I-ADAPT) theory: conceptualizing the antecedents, consequences, and measurement of individual differences in adaptability, Understanding Adaptability: A Prerequisite for Effective Performance within Complex Environments, Performance Management: A Roadmap for Developing, Implementing and Evaluating Performance Management Systems, Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results, Predicting adaptive performance: further tests of a model of adaptability, The relationship between employee motivation, job satisfaction and corporate culture, Research on the employment interview: usefulness for practice and recommendations for future research, Work-related commitment and job performance: It’s also the nature of the performance that counts, Multi-structural relationships among organizational culture, job autonomy, and CTE teacher turnover intention, Validation guidelines for IS positivist research, Firm and industry as determinants of executive perceptions of the environment, Proactive personality and job performance: a social capital perspective, The big five personality traits and job performance across time in maintenance and transitional job stages, Impact of organizational culture on employee performance and productivity: a case study of telecommunication sector in Bangladesh, International Journal of Business and Management, Financial performance and the long-term link with HR practices, work climate and job stress, Training, Competence and Development: The Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Human resources, organizational resources, and capabilities, The Routledge Companion to Strategic Human Resource Management, Toward a unifying framework for exploring fit and flexibility in strategic human resource management. 6, pp. If the organizational climate “devalues” a firm’s employees, then employees are likely to see obstacles in their behavior, forcing them to leave the company (Mathis and Jackson, 2011). (1996), “The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. Nowadays, the phenomenon of increased competition between firms and their need to respond effectively to rapidly changing operational conditions, as well as to personnel requirements, has escalated the necessity to identify those factors that affect employee performance (EP). 63-77. 565-579. 324-348. Chen, J.C., Silverthorne, C. and Hung, J.Y. 3, pp. Lepak et al. (2004), Performance Management: A Roadmap for Developing, Implementing and Evaluating Performance Management Systems, SHRM Foundation, Alexandria, VA. Pulakos, E.D. and Klein, K.J. However, this as a result of th e state of employee performance in such universities is at … Bapna, R., Langer, N., Mehra, A., Gopal, R. and Gupta, A. the sample is heterogeneous). Moreover, Song et al. Parker, C.P., Baltes, B.B., Young, S.A., Huff, J.W., Altmann, R.A., Lacost, H.A. (1997), “Handbook of organizational measurement”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. These processes create unique skill combinations, exploitable by the firm and difficult to copy by competitors. (2007) report that employees’ proactivity and adaptability are two different things and suggest that proactivity is an antecedent of adaptability. Finally, employees believe that their job performance levels are high, and they use their working time in the most efficient and effective ways. In other words, firms do not consider their employees as “automatons” that produce their products and services, but as individuals who need guidance and assistance to carry out their job activities efficiently. The purpose of this research is thus to explore and integrate the relations between firm/environment-related factors, job-related factors and employee-related factors into an analytical EP assessment model. Concerning job environment, Kopelman et al. 3 31 No. A total of 163 items were measured using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). The most important job-related factor is job environment, which has the strongest relationship (0.50***/H13c) on intrinsic motivation. After all, if the worker’s performance was mostly negative, they 5. 12 No. Mathis, R.L. In turn, employees will be more confident that their knowledge, skills and behaviors significantly contribute to the achievement of higher job performance, something that in the long run have a positive impact on their overall job performance. Management support and intrinsic motivation have a weaker but still significant direct impact on EP (0.15***/Η1 and 0.13**/Η21, respectively). Regarding environmental dynamism, a relatively weak direct relationship with training culture (0.10**) is proposed. (2011), “Intrinsic motivation as a moderator on the relationship between perceived job autonomy and work performance”, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. As can been noticed, all the hypotheses referring to the relationships between the constructs are accepted. 435-462. Adaptability and intrinsic motivation have only a direct impact on performance. Thus, employees with increased job autonomy have more flexibility in their work because they choose how to execute their jobs more efficiently and thus their performance is increased (Morgenson et al., 2005). (2006, p. 162) define job autonomy as the extent to which “the job allows the employee to make decisions about how to perform his work.” They also state that job autonomy is positively associated with EP. Mathis and Jackson (2011) and Armstrong (2012) argue that firm-related factors from firm’s internal and external environment, such as management support, training culture, organizational climate and environmental dynamism are related to: job-related factors, such as communication, autonomy and environment; employee-related factors, such as intrinsic motivation, proactivity, adaptability, skill flexibility, commitment and skill level; and EP. 39 No. For this reason, managers that are aware of a firm’s strategic planning and business environment should ideally choose the degree of support to employees and manage this accordingly. This dislike is understandable given that the process of performance appraisal—as traditionally practiced—is fundamentally flawed. job satisfaction and its relationship with job performance may be included). For too many businesses, employee performance leaves a lot to be desired. (a, b, c): Firm/environment-related factors are related to job-related factors. 2, pp. Additionally, it may be useful to determine which other factors mediate between commitment and EP. 30-53. Newer ways of training and interactions will keep employees engaged and encourage them to deliver their best. and Roberts, J.E. For instance, a leading paint company announced annual appraisals for all employees during these turbulent times. and Kozlowski, S.W.J. (2013), “Impact of organizational culture on employee performance and productivity: a case study of telecommunication sector in Bangladesh”, International Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 785-808. aMillion euro/(Sample size, n=79), Note: aDue to the limited number of variables, this factor’s model is overfitted, Direct and indirect standardized effects of the model factors, Notes: D, direct effect; I, indirect effect; T, total effect. 5, pp. 1, pp. How to maintain employee performance during COVID-19 The past few months have urged businesses and HR leaders across the globe to revisit their strategies for ensuring business continuity and employee satisfaction. This support should be given to their employees at a personal level as well as by improving both organizational climate and job environment in order to directly and indirectly affect their job performance levels. 19 No. (1991), Performance Appraisal: An Organizational Perspective, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. 3, pp. Table V summarizes the total, direct and indirect effects between the factors incorporated into the research model. (2002) state that if employees adapt easily to a new workplace (and/or new job requirements and needs), as well as to irregular situations, there may be a positive effect on their performances. (2007), “A new model of work role performance: positive behavior in uncertain and interdependent contexts”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. In addition, it is found that five more relationships are strongly supported (they are shown with dashed lines in Figure 3). Additionally, employees believe that if firms want to move them into another job position, they will be able to perform their new tasks to a satisfactory level. (2006) found that job communication is related to commitment (employee-related factor) and EP. (2004) point out that Cronbach’s α reliability test can be used to assess the internal consistency of measurements. taking the initiative, making suggestions about their performances, confronting appropriately unforeseen job problems). Ltd. All rights reserved. In particular, they believe that they can easily work with their peers regardless of whether they are newcomers or have different cultural backgrounds. Another possible methodological limitation of this study is the utilization of cross-sectional self-reported variables. 1, pp. Breu, K., Hemingway, C.J., Strathern, M. and Bridger, D. (2002), “Workforce agility: the new employee strategy for the knowledge economy”, Journal of Information Technology, Vol. The total variance explained (TVE) score is also used to measure the percentage of common variance that is explained by all factors. Griffin et al. Moreover, Delaney and Huselid (1996) suggest that in order for firm performance to be improved through increased EP, firms should strengthen employee motivation. 36 No. and Rainer, R.K. (1996), “A general measure of user computing satisfaction”, Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 3-39. Pulakos, E.D. The results of the confirmatory factor and reliability analyses (Table III) can be considered as satisfactory. Employees perceive that they have a satisfactory level of job autonomy, stating that their firms give them the opportunity to manage various job characteristics (such as their daily workloads and work activities) in a way that their job performance is not negatively affected. In other words, excessive support for employees’ actions may lead to disorientation from their job duties. His works have been published in International Journal of Training and Development, International Journal of Human Resource Management, among others. employees not confront problematic job-related situations, creating obstacles to solving them and resulting in reduced job performance). Closer home, being an essential service provider, AGS Group decided to have no salary cuts across all levels. Further, the strongest indirect effect on EP comes from management support (0.25***), followed by organizational climate (0.24***) and job environment (0.22***). Anastasios D. Diamantidis is the corresponding author and can be contacted at:, The degree to which management supports an employee in the performance of his work, The extent to which a firm considers employee training as a factor that positively affects the employee performance, How an employee perceives the job climate and in particular the quality of relationships with supervisors and colleagues, Environmental dynamism (perceived instability), Management’s perception regarding the business environment’s stability in which a firm operates, The degree to which an employee realizes from supervisor’s behavior that he is a valuable asset of the company, The degree to which job design gives an employee the idea that through the execution of his work he can positively and uniquely contributes to the company, The degree to which job environment satisfy employee’s social needs, The degree to which an employee is socially connected with his peers, The degree to which an employee believes that his skills lead to a high level of job performance, The degree to which a supervisor informs an employee regarding his performance level, The degree to which a supervisor informs employees regarding the various changes occurring in their workplace and working environment, The degree to which the supervisor is willing to listen and respond to employee’s requests and inquiries, The degree to which a firm allows employees to work out, spontaneously, various aspects of work, taking into account the functions and performance objectives of the work, Employee’s voluntary and constructive efforts to improve firm’s procedures in the workplace, Making innovative suggestions for change and recommending modifications to standard procedures even when others disagree, Generating new ideas or approaches and implementing them in the workplace, Self-directed and anticipatory action to prevent the reoccurrence of work problems, Actively scan organization’s environment to identify ways to ensure a fit between the organization and its environment, The degree to which an employee has a positive track record for selling issues (making others aware of particular issue), The degree to which an employee is willing to devote time, energy ,and effort into behaviors to ensure key decision makers in the organization know the issues, Directly asking for feedback from a supervisor about the level of work performance, Using as feedback the information obtained from actively monitoring the job environment (supervisor and peer behavior), Explicit attempts to change one’s job so that it better fits his skills and abilities, Individual’s active attempts to promote his career rather than a passive response to the job situation as given,  Handling emergencies or crisis situations, Reacting with appropriate and proper urgency in life threatening, dangerous, or emergency situation (at the workplace), Remaining composed and cool when faced with difficult circumstances or a highly demanding workload as well as acting as a calming and settling influence to whom others look for guidance, Developing creative solutions for an unusual, complex and indeterminate job-related problem,  Dealing with uncertain and unpredictable work situations, Readily and easily deals with unpredictable or unexpected job-related events and circumstances and applies the appropriate solution,  Learning work tasks, technologies, and procedures, Quickly and proficiently learning new methods on how to perform previously unlearned tasks and adjust to new work processes and procedures, Listening to and considering others’ viewpoints and opinions and altering own opinion when it is appropriate to do so, Willingly adjusting on-the-job behavior or appearance as necessary to comply with or show respect for others’ values and customs, Adjusting to challenging job environmental states such as extreme heat, humidity, cold, or dirtiness, The degree to which an employee performs the job in the best possible way to achieve personal satisfaction, The degree to which an employee possesses skills and abilities that allow the firm to use them in different job positions, The degree of employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the firm, The costs that an employee can tolerate when leaving the firm, Employee’s feelings of obligation to remain at the firm, The extent a firm believes that the frequent assessment of employees’ skills has a positive effect on their performance, The degree to which the level of productivity of an individual employee meets the firms performance standards, Market share growth (%) in the last 3 years. On the other hand, though employees themselves say that they have relatively low levels of willingness to put in extra effort, energy and time in order to provide their firms with useful but “indiscriminate” and “sensitive” information. 793-807. Bhattacharya, M., Gibson, D. and Doty, D. (2005), “The effects of flexibility in employee skills, employee behaviors, and human resource practices on firm performance”, Journal of Management, Vol. Digital educational or training portals are a great way to bring about a change in the traditional training methods.