One survey in Australia found 60% of breeding pairs to have successfully fledged chicks. I. Among the four social structures, 80% of sarus cranes were classified as a pair and 7% were classified as a single bird . Discuss in pairs/groups of 4 each and answer the following questions.  They are a symbol of marital virtue and in parts of Gujarat, taking a newlywed couple to see a pair of sarus cranes is customary. A study conducted at the Rome zoo noted that these birds were resistant to anthrax. It is also not known how these proportions equate to more standard metrics of breeding success such as proportions of breeding pairs succeeding in raising young birds. Among 77 observation points, 183 sarus cranes were recorded.  The source of this population is unclear, but is very likely to be from the growing population in Himachal Pradesh. They were also successfully bred in captivity early in the 17th century by Emperor Jehangir, who also noted that the eggs were laid with an interval of two days and that incubation period was 34 days. The species is venerated in India and legend has it that the poet Valmiki cursed a hunter for killing a sarus crane and was then inspired to write the epic Ramayana. âSarus cranes generally make habitats in marshy places like wetlands. Male bird is ‘necking’.  The sarus crane breeds in some high elevation regions such as near the Pong Dam in Himachal Pradesh, where populations may be growing in response to increasing rice cultivation along the reservoir. a. the proud neck of the birds  Based on these observations, unseasonal nesting (or nesting outside of the monsoon) of sarus cranes was thought to be due to either the presence of two populations, some pairs raising a second brood, and unsuccessful breeding by some pairs in the normal monsoon season, prompting them to nest again when conditions such as flooded marshes remain. the wings of the male bird are fully open. A killer shot dead the male crane when it was least expected. , Young birds were often captured and kept in menageries, both in India and in Europe in former times. It goes on expressing its sorrow to anyone who could understand. It returns to the spot when the hunter goes away. Subscribe now. a. that the female bird was out of her senses after the death of the male bird.  Like most birds, they have bird lice and the species recorded include Heleonomus laveryi and Esthiopterum indicum. *Click here to view the festival schedule* Media contact: Andy Bingle, Interpretive Programs Manager, 608-356-9462 est. Eggs are chalky white and weigh about 240 grams. Among the Gondi people, the tribes classified as "five-god worshippers" consider the sarus crane as sacred. In areas with perennial water supply, as in the western plains of Uttar Pradesh, breeding pairs maintain perennial territories. d. the material of the bag, The nest is unconcealed and conspicuous, being visible from afar, and defended fiercely by the pair. The sarus cranes from the Indian subcontinent are well marked and differentiated from the south-eastern population by having a white collar below the bare head and upper neck, and white tertiary remiges. Having seen its mate shot dead by the hunters and being taken away, the female sarus is heartbroken.  They were observed to feed on grain, nuts, and insects from a range of crop fields, including stubble of maize and peanut crops, hay crops, fields with potato, legumes, and seed crops, and after harvest in fields of sugarcane, grass, and fodder crops. How was the majestic neck humbled by the hunter?. Question 7. The third is the "seasonally migratory" population, also primarily in the arid zone of Gujarat and Rajasthan. The proud, dignified bird was killed and thrown into the washing bag like dirty linen.  In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, four species, including the sarus crane, were placed in the resurrected genus Antigone that had originally been erected by German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1853. The female bird flies around crying when male bird is shot. , Flower (1938) notes only 26 years in captivity, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22692064A93335364.en, "Birdlife in Nagarparkar, district Tharparkar, Sindh", "Distribution, demography and conservation status of the Indian Sarus Crane (, "A review of the three subspecies of Sarus Cranes, https://www.savingcranes.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/cranes_and_agriculture_web_2018.pdf, "Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation among the subspecies of Sarus Crane (, "Mitochondrial genome sequences and the phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)", "Flufftails, finfoots, rails, trumpeters, cranes, limpkin", "Effectiveness of road transects and wetland visits for surveying Black-necked Storks, "Some observations on a pair of Sarus Cranes at Tring", "Acoustic exaggeration of size in birds via tracheal elongation: comparative and theoretical analyses", "Observations on the mating behaviour of the Indian Sarus Crane, "Conservation of the vulnerable Sarus Crane, "Some nesting records of the sarus crane in North American zoological parks", "Effect of incubating adult sex and clutch size on egg orientation in Sarus Cranes, "Growth rates of cranes reared in captivity", "Observations of unusual clutch size, renesting and egg concealment by Sarus Cranes, "Instances of successful raising of three chicks by Sarus Crane, "Observations of mate change and other aspects of pair-bond in the Sarus Crane, "Studies in Helminthology-Trematode parasites of birds", "On some Queensland trematodes, with anatomical observations and descriptions of new species and genera", "Intrinsic aging-related mortality in birds", "Unusually high mortality of cranes in areas adjoining Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan", "Sarus cranes in lowlands of Nepal: Is it declining really? Question 2.  Breeding pairs are territorial and prefer to forage in natural wetlands, though wetland crops such as rice and wheat are also frequented. , Until recently, little was known of sarus crane ecology from Australia.  Breeding success, and proportions of pairs that raised two chicks each, was similar in each floodplain. , Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, from a limited number of specimens, suggested that gene flow occurred within the continental Asian populations until the 20th-century reductions in range, and that Australia was colonized only in the Late Pleistocene, some 35,000 years ago. Breeding success in Australia has been estimated by counting the proportion of young-of-the-year in wintering flocks in the crop fields of Atherton Tablelands in north-eastern Queensland. Strong cultural ties to cranes and wetlands in South/Southeast Asia provide unique opportunities to engage people in the conservation of these intensely settled landscapes using the Sarus Crane as a flagship species, which in turn also benefits local communities and other species. natural green 108 BARABOO, WI â The International Crane Foundation will celebrate its annual Cranes of the World Festival Saturday, August 5, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., at its global headquarters in Baraboo, Wisconsin.. Come meet all 15 species of cranes from around the world. , While individuals from northern populations are among the heaviest cranes, alongside the red-crowned and wattled cranes, and the largest in their range, birds from Australia tend to be smaller. Hunter goes away but female bird stays there. The word can be interpreted in two different ways. c. urgency of the hunters. c. the hands and jaws of the bird. A pair of sarus cranes performing to intimidate a trespassing crane. , Data collated over a century from South Asia show sarus cranes nesting throughout the year. The population in Australia (initially placed in A. a. sharpii (sometimes spelt sharpei, but amended to conform to the rules of Latin grammar) was separated and named as the race A. a. gilliae, sometimes spelt gillae or even gilli), prior to a genetic analysis.  Adult birds do not moult their feathers annually, but feathers are replaced about once every two to three years. Eastern Sarus Crane: Originally occurred throughout Indochina; in the last 50 years, it has been decimated throughout this range, but occurs in â¦ The female crane is distressed at the scene she witnesses, she gracefully flies around the scene in circles and croons over the disgraceful end of her partner.  An Indian 14-seater propeller aircraft, the Saras, is named after this crane.  A reasonably sized population of over 150 cranes has recently been discovered breeding in rice fields in the Ayeyarwadi delta, Myanmar, with additional cranes confirmed in the states of Kachin, Shan, and Rakhine.  The Australian population is greater than 5,000 birds and may be increasing, however, the Southeast Asian population has been decimated by war and habitat change (such as intensive agriculture, deforestation, and draining of wetlands), and by the mid-20th century, had disappeared from large parts of its range which once stretched north to southern China. Unlike many other cranes that make long migrations, sarus cranes are largely nonmigratory and few populations make relative short-distance migrations. The Greek word for crane is ÎÎµÏÎ±Î½Î¿Ï (Geranos), which gives us the so called Cranesbill, or hardy geranium. Chicks are also prone to predation (estimated at about 8%) and collection at the nest, but more than 30% die of unknown reasons. How does the poet bring out the agony and desperation of the female crane in the poem? The species was a close contender to the Indian peafowl as the national bird of India. The sarus crane (Antigone antigone) is a large nonmigratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Australia. In South Asia, four distinct population-level behaviours have been noted. Photo: K.S.  In semi-arid areas, breeding pairs and successfully fledged juveniles depart from territories in the dry season and join non-breeding flocks. This skin is rough and covered by papillae, and a narrow area around and behind the head is covered by black, bristly feathers. they act heartless towards the pair of cranes. It was shot when the bird had dipped its beak in the water.  Dancing may also be a displacement activity, when the nest or young is threatened. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.  Pairs show high fidelity to the nest site, often refurbishing and reusing a nest for as many as five breeding seasons. They used to be found on occasion in Pakistan, but have not been seen there since the late 1980s.  The little-known Philippine population became extinct in the late- 1960s.  This has been corroborated by nDNA microsatellite analyses on a large and widely distributed set of individuals in the sample.  This high success rate is attributed to above-normal rainfall that year. This poem gives us a wonderful, touching account of the love of â¦ They picked up the dead bird by its hands and jaws b. heartlessness of the hunters. Breeding records (confirmed sightings of nests with eggs, or of adult birds with flightless young) were known from only three locations, all in the Gulf Plains in Queensland. With her beak she kissed and bloodstained feathers of her mate which the wind had not yet carried away and sat down to hatch them in the hope she could bring him back to life. The tallest of the flying birds, standing at a height up to 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in), they are a conspicuous species of open wetlands in South Asia, seasonally flooded Dipterocarpus forests in Southeast Asia, and Eucalyptus-dominated woodlands and grasslands in Australia.. (a) the sun was unwilling to rise. KSEEB SSLC Class 10 English Solutions In 2011, 24 captive-bred cranes raised from five founders were reintroduced into Thailand.  Removal of eggs by farmers (to reduce crop damage) or children (in play), or by migrant labourers for food or opportunistic egg collection during trips to collect forest resources are prominent causes of egg mortality. Answer: Paragraph: The callousness of the hunters is brought out in the way the poet describes killing of a male sarus bird.  Nest initiation in northern Queensland is also closely tied to rainfall patterns, with most nests being initiated immediately after the first major rains. To a Pair of Sarus Cranes by Manmohan Singh About the Author: Manmohan Singh, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service, is a contemporary poet. It is not known if this variation represents annual differences in conditions in the breeding areas or if it included biases such as different proportions of breeding pairs traveling to Atherton to over-winter.  In areas with perennial wetlands on the landscape, such as in western Uttar Pradesh, numbers of nonbreeding sarus cranes in flocks can be relatively stable throughout the year.  They build large nests, platforms made of reeds and vegetation in wet marshes or paddy fields. Question 8. , The young birds are easily reared by hand, and become very tame and attached to the person who feeds them, following him like a dog. A hunter kills a male sarus crane for sport without realizing the impact it would have on the female sarus crane, he also does not realize what it can mean to the eco-system that they are a part of. Grieving for the male bird and sitting on his blood-stained feathers, the female bird forgot to eat or drink and thus, becoming very weak, met her end.  The nest is constructed within shallow water by piling up rushes, straw, grasses with their roots, and mud so that the platform rises above the level of the water to form a little island.  In Australia, wintering, nonbreeding sarus cranes forage in areas with intensive agriculture (primarily maize, sugarcane, groundnuts) and smaller patches of cattle-grazing areas in the Atherton Tablelands in eastern Queensland. The first stanza of the poet contains a figure os speech – the hyperbole – which is used to highlight a particular point through exaggeration. The second is the "expanding population" consisting of cranes appearing in new areas following new irrigation structures in semiarid and arid areas primarily in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Habitat and Range: Saris cranes are found in northern India and Indochina. The bent neck of the bird and the eager movements of the bird are shown thus. The hunters were not touched by the beauty of the bird. Migratory populations are also known from Southeast Asia and Australia. It is widely believed that the sarus pairs for life and that death of one partner leads to tâ¦ The sarus crane (Grus antigone) is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia and Australia.It is the tallest flying bird, and can grow to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) tall. The average flock size was 2.37 individuals .  Pairs that nest later in the season have a lower chance of raising chicks successfully, but this improves when territories have more wetlands.  The role of rice paddies and associated irrigation structures may be particularly important for the birds' conservation, since natural wetlands are increasingly threatened by human activity. and flung it into a course bag as if it were a piece of dirty linen and the bag a washing bag.  Eggs of the sarus crane are, however, used in folk remedies in some parts of India. Even sport-hunting guides discouraged shooting these birds. The Australian population shows the most recent divergence from the ancestral form with an estimated 3000 generations of breeding within Australia. This video will explain the poem in detail. Part 2", "Notes on birds observed in Oudh and Kumaon", "After IAF, Indian Posts shows interest for NAL Saras", "The use of the anaesthetic "CT1341" in a Sarus crane", "Isolation of a sex-Linked DNA sequence in cranes", 10.1675/1524-4695(2006)29[365:fsdahs]2.0.co;2, The Cranes Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan: Sarus Crane (, Sarus Crane (International Crane Foundation), International Crane Foundation (literature), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sarus_crane&oldid=989048124, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 19:29. Janaki Lenin October 26, 2019 16:40 IST Updated: October 25, 2019 15:45 IST  As of 2019[update], attempts to reintroduce the birds to eastern Thailand have shown some promise. His poems have been published in a number of magazines.  Sarus cranes are rare in West Bengal and Assam, and are no longer found in the state of Bihar. The fourth population is "perennially resident" and found in areas such as southwestern Uttar Pradesh, where artificial and natural water sources enable cranes to stay in the same location throughout the year. , In captivity, sarus cranes have been known to live for as long as 42 years.  They are omnivorous, eating insects (especially grasshoppers), aquatic plants, fish (perhaps only in captivity), frogs, crustaceans, and seeds. d. the desperate act of the female bird to bring the male bird back to life. Crane movements are well known for their fluidity and grace. , The species has historically been widely distributed on the lowlands of India along the Gangetic plains, extending south to the Godavari River, west to coastal Gujarat, the Tharparkar District of Pakistan, and east to West Bengal and Assam. She was always very happy, and the death of the male bird pushed her towards sadness. The female bird hadn’t known grief or sadness before. This bird has a grey ear covert patch, orange-red irises, and a greenish-grey bill. It means that  The eggshells are removed by the parents after the chicks hatch either by carrying away the fragments or by swallowing them. Its so nice Question 2. , This species was described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae and placed it in the genus Ardea that included the larger herons. In the tale of Ibycus and the cranes, a thief attacked Ibycus (a poet â¦ Certainly, the bird cannot touch the sun with its beak or even reach the horizon.  The sarus crane is widely thought to pair for life and that death of one partner leads to the other pining to death. Both its legs and toes are a light reddish-orange color.  Non-breeding birds form flocks that vary from 1–430 birds.  According to 19th-century British zoologist Thomas C. Jerdon, young birds were good to eat, while older ones were "worthless for the table". d. cruelty of the hunters  In areas where farmers are tolerant, nests in flooded rice fields and those in wetlands have similar rates of survival. Question 3. In Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, and Kasganj districts, nonbreeding sarus cranes form up to 65% of the regional population. The neck of a Sarus crane is very long, graceful and beautiful. After the killers had left the place, the female bird returned to the death scene and kept flying around whining for its companions« with short and long wails resembling the Morse Code. Permanent removal of pairs from the population due to developmental activities caused reduced population viability, and was a far more important factor impacting breeding success relative to total annual rainfall.. The female crane then pecks at a few feathers of the male crane and in a desperate attempt to bring the male crane back to life tries to hatch the feathers to a toddling chick.  Breeding pairs in Australia similarly defend territories from neighbouring crane pairs, and nonbreeding birds are found in flocks frequently mixed with brolgas. Gopi Sundar .  In Australia, suspected predators of young birds include the dingo (Canis dingo) and fox (Vulpes vulpes), while brahminy kites (Haliastur indus) have been known to take eggs. Photo by K. S. Gopi Sundar. You can Download To a Pair of Sarus Cranes Poem Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes, Summary Class 10 English Karnataka State Board Solutions to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.  Farmers in sarus crane wintering areas in Australia are beginning to use efficient methods to harvest crops, which may lead to lowered food availability.  The species was a close contender to the Indian peafowl as the national bird of India. However, the bird was no match for the cunningness and heartlessness of man. And the poet says that the female sarus crane went beyond Hume’s words and beyond the legends and fables of human love.  Among the Gondi people, the tribes classified as "five-god worshippers" consider the sarus crane as sacred. , A review of literature and assessment of abundance of sarus cranes in Nepal suggests that past field methods were either inadequate or incomplete to properly estimate abundances, and that the population of cranes in Nepal may be on the increase. Question 5. The species no longer breeds in Punjab, though it winters regularly in the state. What is it?  The clutch is one or two eggs (rarely three or four) which are incubated by both sexes for about 31 days (range 26–35 days). Breeding pairs maintain territories that are defended from other cranes using a large repertoire of calls and displays. The sun is described as the reluctant sun. It could be a wave of grief which the bird had never known as long as her partner was alive. One which I kept, when bread and milk was given to him, would take the bread out of the milk, and wash it in his pan of water before eating it. Increasing paddy fields accompanied by an increase in the network of irrigation canals during and prior to the Green Revolution may have facilitated increases in the distribution and numbers of sarus cranes due to an increase in reliable moisture levels in various locations in India.  However, the program also caused local jealousies leading to deliberate disturbance of nests, and did nothing to alleviate larger-scale and more permanent threats due to habitat losses leading to the conclusion that such payment-for-conservation programs are at best a short-term complement, and not a substitute, to more permanent interventions that include habitat preservation. To a Pair of Sarus Cranes Poem Summary in English.  The attitude of farmers tends to be positive in spite of these damages, and this has helped in conserving the species within agricultural areas. It is hard to imagine a place less hospitable for cranes than the state of â¦ Sarus cranes are the largest of all the crane species and the tallest flying bird alive today. Fun Facts.  When alarmed, the parent cranes use a low korr-rr call that signals chicks to freeze and lie still.  Adults have been known to fly into power lines and die of electrocution, this is responsible for killing about 1% of the local population each year. Answer:  Nest success (percentage of nests in which at least one egg hatched) for 96 sarus nests that were protected by locals during 2009–2011 via a payment-for-conservation program was 87%.  Although now found mainly at low elevations on the plains, some historical records exist from highland marshes further north in Harkit Sar and Kahag in Kashmir.  Unseasonal nests were initiated in years when rainfall extended beyond the normal June–October period, and when rainfall volume was higher than normal; or when artificial wet habitats were created by man-made structures such as reservoirs and irrigation canals to enhance crop production. Nest success of protected nests was significantly higher than that of unprotected nests, and positive population-level impacts were apparent. , The species is venerated in India and legend has it that the poet Valmiki cursed a hunter for killing a sarus crane and was then inspired to write the epic Ramayana. In this manner, the majestic neck has humbled the hunter. ", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, "The Moghul emperors of India as naturalists and sportsmen. Little is known about the diseases and parasites of the sarus crane, and their effects on wild bird populations.