Mountain Research and Development, 10: 101-127. Whether starting up a new ecotourism venture or changing the structure of an existing business, a business plan will help guide your efforts. Studies such as this help to quantify the value of mountain resources and to turn attention to the social and environmental costs of their use (SNEP, 1996). Rome, FAO. They are higher and usually steeper than a hill and are generally over 600 metres high. 1997. Erdkunde, 50: 317-327. Mountains of the world: water towers for the twenty-first century. New York City Watershed Agricultural Program, United States. For instance, it has often been argued that the best governments can do is to eliminate the obstacles to the smooth functioning of market forces and provide information to […] Davis, California, USA, University of California, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project. Lynelle Preston is a programme officer at the Asian Regional Office of The Mountain Institute in Kathmandu, Nepal. Brugger, G. Furrer, B. Messerli & P. Messerli, eds. A second factor, which is central in most of the case studies, is better definition of ownership, rights and responsibilities. Addis Ababa, International Livestock Research Institute. You can also become involved in local politics (if you're old enough to vote), or support public lectures or seminars in your area. Recommendations of NGOs and mountain populations to governments and to the European Union. Global distribution of species diversity on vascular plants: towards a world map of phytodiversity. It was therefore assumed that sustainability would be achieved through strategies which reverse the flow of benefits and provide an equitable share to mountain people as an incentive for continued stewardship. Tax cuts and rebates are used to return money to consumers and boost spending. produced foodstuffs: also called appellation of origin, Cheese production in the Beaufort Valley, France, Tools which capitalize on value addition from environmentally benign However, if sustainable quantity and quality are to be assured, downstream users must begin to assume a larger share of the true costs of water by paying for the maintenance of watersheds. New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. Transfer of technology, capacity-building, education, science, awareness-raisingEconomic sector/major group. E-mail address: [email protected], Morrow, C. 1996. Rather, stakeholders are often given an opportunity to participate in decisions regarding the resource use which instills a sense of responsibility. The higher a location is above sea level, the colder it is. United States, Exclusive legal rights to the production and sale of high-quality, locally “Land” as used in economics includes natural resources such as the fertility of land, its situation and composition, forest wealth, minerals, climate, water resources and sea resources etc. Tehri, India, Sri Bhuvaneshwari Mahila Ashram. However, with this "ownership" should come a set of responsibilities to the interconnected resources, even those that have not been clearly defined. 1995. 1996. You and your friends could look into volunteering at local organizations, or give blood if you're old enough. The electronic conference, held in 1996, was hosted by the Mountain Forum, a global electronic network of individuals and organizations involved in mountain conservation and development. Develop resonsible … The goal was to identify financing mechanisms that are currently being employed in mountain areas to pay for maintaining sustainable flows of mountain resources. In the New York City Watershed Agricultural Program, with no increase in the price of water, the revenue generated from water use is reinvested in upstream farmers to protect the watershed. Forestry is a key economic activity with the planting and harvesting of trees e.g. source of funding, Warm Springs Indian Reservation Trust, Oregon, United States, Wolf Compensation Fund, Rocky Mountains, United States, Use of private sector funds for conservation, Shore Trust Bank, Washington, United States, Recreational Equipment, Inc., United States, A fuller understanding of land-use and ownership patterns is fundamental for mountain conservation and development. in Sikkim, India, Training and support for developing new small businesses, Entrepreneurial systems of associations with roots in the local region Franklin, West Virginia, USA, The Mountain Institute and FAO. 4th ed. Agricultural machinery is difficult to use and there is a very short growing season. Progress in theoretical and applied mountain research, 1973-1989, and major future needs. Download this stock image: Huoshan, China's Anhui Province. To create a low inflationary framework, it requires: 1. These terms have been the subject of criticism, but they remain commonly used in many circles, including among international investors and international organizations. Predicting global change impacts on mountain hydrology and ecology: integrated catchment hydrology/altitudinal gradient studies. & Messerli, B. You could pay up to 30 percent more for roads, utilities, water, sewer and building foundations when you develop … Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 1-15. New York City Watershed Program. Considering mountain economics based on the results of an electronic conference, Investing in Mountains. 1995. Five Easy Steps to Develop a Country . Price, M.F. This may be organized in conjunction with an International Year of Mountains, which has been proposed by the Government of Kyrgyzstan. These include pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, and bowl-shaped cirques that can contain lakes. Performance coaching is a powerful tool when managers take advantage of its usefulness. 1997. 6.2 How could water be used more efficiently and sustainably? Workers will benefit during the $12.6* billion construction project. 1997. In either case, once the full resource value is established, mechanisms can often be employed to acquire this value and redirect it from downstream users to mountain communities. Mountain research in Europe: an overview of MAB research from the Pyrenees to Siberia. Mountains and people. Bern, Mountain Agenda. In fact, the real losses over time extend to global populations. They stretch across the western and southern part of the continent in a broad arc.The mountain range starts near the Mediterranean Seaon the border between France and Italy. Mountains are areas of land that are much higher than the land surrounding them. Banskota. Undocumented immigrants pay an average of $11.64 billion in state and local taxes a year. Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 249-280. market, Mountain Protection Plan, Virginia, United States, Legal agreement which entails the sale or donation of a property owner's These partnerships - whether between upstream and downstream dwellers, governments and private organizations, producers and consumers or global communities and local institutions -are often initiated by the stakeholders themselves. Bern, Paul Haupt. They develop the available natural elements and transform them into ‘resources’ for use. Sherpas: reflections on changes in Himalayan Nepal. FAO Forestry Paper No. E-mail correspondence. Tax cuts and rebates are used to return money to consumers and boost spending. As a result of the complexity of mountain resources and the limitations of traditional pricing approaches, the resource value is typically not reflected in the product price. This study concluded that water resources are by far the most valuable economic resource, despite the popular perception that timber and grazing are the two most highly valued resources within the Sierra Nevada ecosystem. According to the UNGASS final document, all countries are expected to have prepared national strategies for sustainable development by 2002, involving all interested parties and integrating economic, social and environmental objectives. Renewable energy from mountains promotes economic development, especially in rural areas. Mountain systems are defined by pluralism - by the complex assortment of stakeholders who share a common interest in sustainable mountain development. Further analysis identified three factors that appear to be essential to the success of each of these case studies: more complete valuation of mountain resources to capture the costs of multiple resources; increased ownership, rights and responsibility for mountain resources; and introduction of incentive structures to foster multiple stakeholder-driven processes in the design and implementation of solutions. Tietenberg, T. 1996. The problem for New York City has been a concern about a potential decrease in the quality of its water owing to runoff from barnyards (paddocks) and faulty sewage treatment systems upstream. Clean air and biodiversity are classic examples. For economic growth, the […] and run by self-management, Cooperative Movement in Trentino Region, Italy, Credit and savings programmes for low-income people, Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, Pakistan, Strategies which enable communities to derive appropriate economic value New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and sustainable development. Mountains of the world: a global priority, p. 157-170. Fold mountains are created through a process called orogeny.An orogenic event takes millions of years to create a fold mountain, but you can mimic … Article Table of Contents Skip to section. Yet information and networking are only the means to an end, and these and other resources must be carefully coordinated and harnessed, building on the long-established role of mountains as cradles of innovation. A Rai woman carrying bamboo collected in the Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, Nepal, Increased ownership, rights and responsibility for mountain resources. It was shown that conservation, which ensures protection of the watershed, constitutes the "highest and best use" of the area. The City was facing the possibility of being forced by the federal Environmental Protection Agency to install a water filtration system at a cost of US$6 billion. Consequently, they have no incentive to invest in watershed and forest conservation. Networks such as the Mountain Forum will have a clear role to play in such initiatives. Traditional economic tools are often inadequate in measuring these non-market goods. Mountains of the world: a global priority. Proceedings of the Final Trento Session. Thus, the stakeholders can better comprehend and accept their rights and responsibilities as, for example, the owner of a timber licence appreciates the economic value of the right to resource extraction conveyed by the licence. ADVERTISEMENTS: Role of Natural Resources in Economic Development! The fact of the matter remains: undeveloped real estate has the ability to deliver the same consistent cash flow as any other type of investment opportunity.. Fortunately for investors, raw land is … Oceans and seasCross-sectoral theme. Good drainage is important, as well as contour and grading. Located in the Dabieshan Mountain region, Huoshan County makes use of its scenery to develop rural tourism economy. Mountains stand as one of the most remarkable geological landforms in the world and often characterize the region in which they are located. High inflation can lead to devaluation of the currency and discourage foreign investment. Federal, regional, and state authorities should identify transmission projects that provide the greatest economic benefits in delivering renewable electricity from where it can be most effectively generated to where it is most needed. Macroeconomic Stability Macroeconomic stability would involve a commitment to low inflation. This is possible precisely because incentive structures have been implemented in each of the examples so that it is in the individual and collective best interest for stakeholders to continue working together. Discussion Paper MEI 95/6. Final Report to Congress, Vol. As a result, natural assets are flowing downhill at unsustainable rates and mountain communities are becoming increasingly marginalized. The third key element of successful mechanisms to protect mountain environments is the design of incentive structures that foster stakeholder-driven processes. 1996. Ways # 2. Some of the goods and services provided by mountain environments, e.g. In E.A. In B. Messerli & J.D. Volcanoes also form mountains and periodically erupt – scraping clear the landscape. Fisher, J.F. Therefore, a critical step in motivating conservation and sustainable use is to understand existing patterns of ownership in order to define more clearly the relationship between stakeholders and mountain resources. Pippen system of generating revenue from tour operators, India, Fees charged for the right to hunt and fish, Fees attached to the price of a good or a service, Lodge taxes in Langtang National Park, Nepal, Fees channelled back to protect the resource being used, New York City Watershed Agricultural Program. 1990. Despite directly affecting businesses, these variables refer to financial state of the economy on a greater level — whether that be local or global. Cash in hand may be more useful to some individuals than its equivalent value as a standing forest so that private ownership of a forest, for example, may lead to short-term gains and degradation. ARPE/CIAPP. Table 1 describes each of the mechanisms and the associated case studies. Therefore, canals, tube wells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of crops. Synthesis of a Mountain Forum electronic conference in support of the Mountain Agenda. Although being in a committed, bonded relationship can enrich your life, feeling unable to function without another person could lead to a problem like Relational Dependency. Paris, UNESCO and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. A good view, however, can be a double-edged sword. As Narpat Jodha (1996) points out. Later theorists have challenged this approach, emphasizing a "bottom-up" development paradigm, in which countries become self-sufficient through local efforts, and urban industry is not necessary. 1996. Incentive structures that foster multiple stakeholder-driven processes. The new economy demands a shift to an entrepreneurial mindset that goes beyond the scope of work in your job description. Environmental and natural resource economics. E-mail sent to the Mountain Forum electronic conference. Innovative mechanisms and promising examples, Legal rights to manage, use or own a particular piece of property or The Appalachian Mountain range. Certain restrictions apply to the use of water, Fees charged by a government for use of a national resource, Mountaineering royalty fees in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal, Fees charged on entry into a protected area, Fees charged to the tour operator rather than the tourists. In B. Messerli & J.D. Furthermore, many types of stakeholders participate, mostly on a voluntary basis with little need for external control or enforcement. given a Central Bank independence to control inflation thr… Kathmandu, ICIMOD. Others, like the Appalachians, saw their heyday hundreds of millions of years ago and have been weathering away ever since. New York, USA, Harper and Collins. Often the incentive structures are maintained by social inducements and "soft sanctions" that depend on peer pressure for compliance. Thus the cultivator can invest more for the improvement of land. The most successful plans are understandable to your key stakeholders and economic development officials. Each year, one sectoral theme, one cross-sectoral theme and one economic sector or major group are to be addressed. European Intergovernmental Consultation on Sustainable Mountain Development. Tourism, EIGHTH SESSION: 2000Sectoral theme. The goal of this report is to inform strategies that other communities and the federal government can use to improve economic outcomes for Canada's First Nations. Sustainable Mountain Development is also the subject of Chapter 13 of Agenda 21, which notes that mountains are an important source of water, … IDENTIFYING AND VALUING MOUNTAIN RESOURCES. The most powerful thing you can … Moreover, traditional downstream beneficiaries are also adversely affected, and no longer receive the benefits of indirect environmental services they previously enjoyed. the need for national policy development and implementation to ensure sustainable patterns of consumption and production in tourism (paragraph 68). Economic factors are connected with goods, services, and money. Rural communities in developing countries are still faced with challenges related to access to basic services, economic opportunities and some degree of incoherence with regard to planning related to rural-urban divide. Backmeroff, C., Chemini, C. & La Spada, P., eds. New York, USA and Carnforth, UK, Parthenon Publishing Group. In this role, FAO must also ensure that mountain issues remain on the global agenda through well-organized undertakings linked to activities associated with future sessions of CSD, the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests and the various relevant conventions on biological diversity, desertification and climate change. TABLE 1. The conference focused particularly on mechanisms that have the potential for widespread adoption in mountain areas. Rostow's theory can be classified as "top-down," or one that emphasizes a trickle-down modernization effect from urban industry and western influence to develop a country as a whole. Over 200 people from 23 different countries participated in the discussion. 1997. They meet as a 21-member Watershed Agricultural Council to disburse the city hinds for pollution prevention projects. 1995. When it comes to regions of the world, developing countries have not quite reached economic maturity, although there's a wide array of different definitions. Well documented project results can help you in getting support from a range of stakeholders and donors. 1997. Mountains are steeper, larger and taller than hills and are more than 600 metres in height. Barthlott, W., Lauer, W. & Placke, A. As stated in the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) report of the third session: UN Commission on Sustainable DevelopmentReport, 1995, THE ROLE OF MOUNTAIN COMMUNITIES AS STEWARDS. biodiversity (United States), are more difficult to quantify. Oil producers will earn more revenue for their product. Those identified were: property rights, transferable development rights, conservation easements, tradable water rights, user fees, royalties, entrance fees, tour operator fees, hunting and fishing fees, environmental taxes, regional trademarks, "green" marketing tools, microenterprise development, cooperatives, microfinance, foreign aid, trust funds, debt-for-nature swaps and the mobilization of private sector funds. The transformation of Swiss mountain regions, p. 427-450. Obviously, the fewer resources an average family uses, the lower the nation’s ecological footprint. Chapter 13 has been the impetus for one of the most innovative initiatives to emerge from Agenda 21 - the Mountain Forum. The mechanisms share three critical features: they estimate and capture full cost values for a range of mountain resources; they identify clear ownership, rights and responsibilities; and they introduce economic incentives so that solutions are introduced and implemented by stakeholders and are sustainable over the long term. IGBP Report No. Historically this value represented only the extraction costs and profits and did not include the environmental benefits and values. Then it curves north- and eastward through northern Italy, Switzerland Liechtenstein, southern Germany, Austria and Slovenia. Stone, P.B., ed. Mountain Agenda: environmentally sustainable and equitable development opportunities. Many rural communities and small towns are facing challenges, including rapid growth at metropolitan edges, declining rural populations, and loss of farms and working lands.Slow-growing and shrinking rural areas might find that their policies are not bringi… Preston, L., ed. 1990. Mountains are landforms which rise for over 600 meters than the surrounding land area. Volcanic mountains , like those of the Hawaiian Islands, for example, form from molten rock that erupts through the planet's crust and begins piling up. In developing countries, wood fuel from mountains is the main source of energy for settlements. Differences in training levels is a significant factor that separates developed and developing countries. However, not all resources can be privatized and individual ownership can lead to destructive and unsustainable uses. Kathmandu, ICIMOD. Bern, Mountain Agenda. For example, forested watersheds not only provide clean water and forest products, but they also provide habitat for wildlife and erosion control, recreational opportunities, clean air and, in many places, sacred significance for surrounding populations. A strategic economic development plan can be complex, but it’s important to keep things as simple and straightforward as possible. Mujica, E. & Rueda, J.L., eds. of globally significant natural resources, National Trust Fund for Protected Areas, Peru, Money invested by local community or organization to provide a long-term In B. Messerli & J.D. Mountains are also becoming recreational refuges from crowded cities for the tourist elite. As air is forced over higher ground, it cools, causing moisture to condense and fall as rain. Introduction to mountains: Mountains can be explained as landforms that rise well above the surrounding land for a limited area in the form of a peak. An accurate valuation of mountain resources, however, is not sufficient. And since international standards usually embed global best practices, the increased uptake of such standards can help promote sustainable development. E.g. Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and Sustainable development. The term has been used frequently in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. 1998. They may have no natural 'passes,' or easy places to cross the mountains. Everyone will benefit. Countries deemed more developed than LDCs are called developed countries, while those less developed are known as less economically developed countries (LEDCs) or frontier markets. & Williams, P.W. The programme is voluntary and run entirely by the farmers themselves. Until now, the mountain agenda has largely been set by a relatively small number of active regional and national governments (and their agencies), international organizations, scientists and NGOs at various levels. The ultimate goal is to increase investment in resources and people, thereby contributing to more economically sustainable use of globally significant mountain resources. SNEP. The analysis of contributions to the electronic conference, Investing in Mountains, has shown that effective and lasting mechanisms are being devised to maintain environmental services and sustainable resource flows from mountains to the areas below. In mountainous areas, ownership of land I and natural resources spans the whole spectrum from private to common to state, with an overlay of traditional usage rights and responsibilities that is not linked to ownership. These proposed options illustrate that communities in both upstream and downstream areas increasingly recognize the unintended negative consequences from unsustainable mountain resource use, and that they are creating and implementing innovative responses aimed to reverse and mitigate adverse effects. UNGASS also defined a programme of work for CSD for the period 1998-2002. Berkeley, USA, University of California Press. Tourism and amenity migration. These factors should be incorporated into the design of mechanisms to ensure sustainable resource use in mountain areas. In mountains such as the Andes and Himalayas, terraces (steps) have been cut into the hillsides to allow crops such as vines and fruit to be grown. resource, Community forest user groups in Makalu-Barun Conservation Area, Nepal, Legal rights to develop a piece of property which can be traded on the M. & Karki, A.S., eds. In none of these examples has the resource been privatized, but in each clarity of ownership, rights and responsibilities has been established. Unless mountain communities are empowered as critical stewards of irreplaceable natural assets and are given secure ownership and usage rights, access to information and decision-makers, and improved economic standards of living, they may be forced to exploit short-term extractive opportunities and thereby deplete globally significant resources. Mountains can make travel difficult. Prepare. The Raw Land Development Process: How To Develop Land In 6 Steps. For more than one billion people, mountains are sacred places. Chapter 13 has been the catalyst to much debate, and many governments and organizations have contributed significant financial and other resources to activities contributing to its implementation. Developing countries may not be able to afford electric or semi-electric cars, but their people can conserve both money and oxygen by carpooling, riding bikes and reusing grocery bags. A more detailed description of each of these mechanisms and case studies is provided in the conference report edited by Lynelle Preston (1997), Investing in mountains: innovative mechanisms and promising examples for financing conservation and sustainable development. The capital of tourism in danger. Energy, transport. The state of the world's mountains: a global report. Effective monetary policy. El desarollo sostenible de montañas en América Latina. The New York City Watershed case study is a classic example of economic incentives that led to stakeholder-driven partnerships between downstream users and upstream stewards. New York City Watershed Agricultural Program. These are the different types of resources based on various factors: support, Money invested at the national level to provide a long-term source of London, Zed Books. This is a validated fall risk self-assessment tool that can be used in clinical or community settings to raise awareness about fall risks as well as help older adults begin to discuss this sensitive topic with their health care providers. In economic terms, public goods are defined as those from which other users cannot be excluded and whose consumption by one individual or group does not diminish the amount available for others (Tietenberg, 1996).
2020 how can mountains be used to develop economically